Two of the most used procedures in statistical analysis are the **z test** and the t-test. But what exactly makes the t-test distinct from the z-test? When would it be preferable to use the Z-test instead of the T-test? All of these questions and more will be answered in the next blog post. As a first step, we’ll look at how the t-test and z-test are constructed and see how they stack up against one another. After that, we’ll go through some examples to help you visualise how these tests are used in the real world. It is crucial to your success as a data scientist that you fully grasp the distinctions between the z-test and the t-test. This will help you choose the right test for your data. Okay, so let’s begin!

**T-test vs. Z-test: What’s the Difference?**

The Z-test is a hypothesis testing statistic. If the population’s standard deviation is known and the data comes from a normal distribution, then it may be used to test the null hypothesis for the following:

The overall population and the sample are statistically indistinguishable from one another. Alternatively, there is not enough of a discrepancy between the sample and population means to warrant further investigation. The one-sample Z-test for means is a helpful statistic for investigating this assumption. To rephrase, the one-sample Z-test for means may be used to test the null hypothesis that the sample does not adequately reflect the population. This section of the test involves comparing the sample mean to the population mean, as shown in the sampling distribution. Imagine a researcher is interested in whether or not the average height of students at a certain university is similar to the height of college students throughout the country. The average height of the school’s student body might be calculated by surveying a random selection of pupils. The Z-test is then used to determine whether or not the difference between the sample mean and the population mean is significant.

**The right Technique**

As a statistical technique for hypothesis testing, the T-test is often used to examine the following null hypotheses: given The sample size is tiny (less than 30 persons), the data follow a normal distribution, and the standard deviation of the population is unknown.

If the sample size is small and the population standard deviation is known, then the sample mean and the population mean will be same. The sample mean and the population mean will be same if the population’s standard deviation is not known. It’s possible to draw parallels between this and the one-sample Z-test for means.

**Conclusion**

To determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the means or proportions of two populations, researchers may use either the z-test or the t-test, which are two separate statistical hypothesis tests. The z-statistic may be used to assess whether there is a significant difference between the means or proportions of two populations provided the population standard deviation is known, the data originates from a normal distribution, and the sample size is large enough (greater than 30). This is done to answer the issue of whether or not the populations have significantly different means or proportions. If the data originate from a normal distribution, the sample size is small (less than 30), and the population standard deviation is unknown, then a T-test is appropriate.